Although kidney stones seem like a simple disease today, they can actually cause a lot of pain to patients. The diet of someone with kidney stones should also be different. Or, the diet should be different in order to prevent the formation of these stones. Before diving into these issues, let’s look at what these stones are and how they are formed.
What are Kidney Stones?
They are hard mineral stones formed in the kidney canals. Before explaining how these occur, we must first look at the circulation of the blood in the body. Blood carries essential structures such as water, minerals, carbohydrates, proteins, fats and oxygen to our organs and cells. Wastes are formed as a result of vital activities in cells and organs. These wastes are filtered from the kidneys through the blood. Wastes accumulated in the kidneys are excreted with urine. At this time, hard deposits may accumulate in the kidney. These deposits turn into stones called Renal lithiasis or Nephrolithiasis over time and form kidney stones.
What are the Symptoms?
- The most important symptom is the burning sensation while urinating
- There may be changes in the color and smell of urine.
- There may be severe pain. These pains can be especially in the back, kidney areas, under the ribs.
- Urinating more than usual
- Decrease in the amount of urine
- Nausea or vomiting may occur.
It should not be forgotten that kidney stones can block the urinary tract over time. As a result, it cannot perform its kidney functions and kidney failure occurs.
Why and How Do Kidney Stones Form?
There can be many reasons for stone formation. Sometimes it can be caused by diseases such as gout, hyperparathyroidism, or due to urinary tract stricture or infection. Sometimes it can occur for no apparent reason.
In general, the following reasons play a role in stone formation:
- Excessive accumulation of insoluble substances in urine
- Change in acidity (pH) of urine
- Decrease in the water ratio of urine
- The collapse of substances such as dead cells and blood clots in the urine for some reasons
- Using vitamin D and calcium supplements for a long time
- Risk is high in obese and overweight people.
- Men are more prone to stone formation than women.
- Genetically, this disease may be inherited from the family.
- Inadequate fluid intake
- Diet can also be effective. For example, a diet high in protein, sodium, or sugar can increase the risk. It is especially effective to consume salty foods.
- Having a very frequent urinary tract infection
- People who have previously had kidney stones are more likely to recur.
How Should the Nutrition Be According to Kidney Stone Type?
In order to prevent the formation of stones in the urinary tract or according to the type of stone formed, attention should be paid to nutrition. There are generally 4 types of stones: Calcium oxalate, calcium phosphate, uric acid stone and cysteine. Stones formed in the urinary tract are formed by the accumulation of one or more of these stones.
An appropriate nutrition can be applied according to the types of stones mentioned above. At least, which foods should be avoided.
It is the most common type. About half of urinary tract stones are made up of calcium oxalate. Oxalic acid in its structure is a waste product of metabolism. In these patients, kidney stone formation is caused by either excessive calcium excretion in the urine or the deterioration of the physical and chemical structure of the urine.
Nutrition for Oxalate Stones: Nutrition in these patients should be aimed at reducing the concentration of oxalic acid and calcium in the urine. Foods rich in oxalic acid and calcium should be avoided.
Some of the foods high in oxalic acid include:
- Sweet Potato
- Green pepper
- Rolled oats
If excessive amounts of calcium stones are found in the urine; Milk and dairy products should not be consumed too much.
If there is less acid than normal in the urine, phosphate precipitation occurs. In general, foods that are not rich in phosphate and calcium should be consumed as it will be with calcium stones. Foods such as meat, eggs, cheese, milk, coffee, coke should not be consumed too much. Vegetable and fruit consumption reduces acidity and makes it alkaline. If there is a chronic urinary tract infection, a medicated treatment is applied. The acidity level is increased with some drugs used.
Uric Acid Stone:
The formation of this stone occurs mostly due to metabolic disease. The amount of uric acid is reduced with some medications. In addition to these drugs, a diet that increases the uric acid level in the blood and decreases the purine substance should be applied. When foods that do not contain purines are consumed, the amount of uric acid in the blood decreases. This method is similar for GUT disease. Foods containing large amounts of purine: Offal, game meat, caviar, anchovies, small fish, meat, chicken meat, legumes. Alcohol is definitely harmful. Tea, coffee and cocoa can be taken in small quantities.
In addition, studies that reduce uric acid have shown positive results in patients with hypertension and kidney disease.
This stone, which is not seen very often, is due to an inherited amino acid metabolism disorder. The purpose of this treatment is to reduce the sulfurous amino acids. For this, especially plant-based foods should be consumed. The consumption of protein-based foods should be reduced.
Nutrition Sample for Kidney Stones or Gout Disease
40 grams of bread, tea with little sugar, fruit juice or fresh fruit can be consumed instead of milk. It is important not to consume fruits that contain high amounts of sugar such as grapes, apricots and peaches.Lunch:
Rice or pasta with tomato, a little butter if used for sauce, 60 g chicken or fish, boiled beans, 60 g bread, 200 g salad and 200 g fruit.Dinner:
Vegetable soup, 60 grams of bread, salad, skimmed milk, 200 grams of fruit. Foods containing high amounts of protein should definitely be avoided.